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24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

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Master Plant Sciences

Seeds: from biology to industry

Plant Sciences platform

U. Paris-Saclay / U. Paris Cité

Université Paris-Saclay and Université Paris Cité common Teaching Unit


Loïc RAJJOU (AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay).


The seed is the dispersal and propagation unit of flowering plants (angiosperms). It contains and protects the plant embryo until germination. France is a major actor on the seed market at the international level. Indeed, it ranks first in Europe for seed production and first worldwide seed export. France owes this position to largely favorable soils and climatic conditions but also to the constant efforts of producers and the entire French seed industry.

The quality of seeds is therefore of great agronomic interest. Indeed, the quality of agricultural production entirely depends on the quality of seeds. Today seeds are one of the essential vectors of scientific and technical progress in agriculture and therefore represent considerable economic, social and environmental challenges. The objective of the teaching unit is to illustrate some modern themes of seed biology by underlining their potential application and to present the main actors and the functioning of the seed industry. For the latter, professional experts are called upon (GEVES, GNIS, INRAE, private sector).


  1. Knowing the seeds: Biotechnologies; Physiology of seed development; Control of seed dormancy, germination and longevity; Seed pathologies.
  2. The seed industry and quality: Seed production, preparation, conditioning and conservation; The establishment of seed quality; Seed quality control, international rules of seed testing.
  3. Economics of seed production: Seeds in the world and the French seed industry; Variety registrations and seed protection; Marketing in the seed sector.


Elective TU (Choice between this TU "Seeds: from biology to industry" and the TU "How to build a plant?").
Lectures: 20h, Tutorials: 20h, Distance learning: 6h
Location: Paris